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A boiler is a closed vessel where water or other fluid is heated. The fluid does not boil. (In North America, the word "furnace" is normally used if the reason is not to boil the fluid.) The heated or vaporized liquid exits the boiler for use in various procedures or heating system applications,[1 - [2 - including drinking water heating, central heating, boiler-based power era, cooking, and sanitation.

Materials
The pressure vessel of the boiler is usually made of steel (or alloy steel), or historically of wrought iron. Stainless steel, of the austenitic types especially, is not used in wetted parts of boilers due to stress and corrosion corrosion cracking.[3 - However, ferritic stainless steel is often used in superheater sections that won't come in contact with boiling water, and electrically heated stainless steel shell boilers are allowed under the European "Pressure Equipment Directive" for production of steam for sterilizers and disinfectors.[4 -
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler
In live steam models, copper or brass is often used because it is more fabricated in smaller size boilers easily. Historically, copper was often used for fireboxes (particularly for steam locomotives), because of its better formability and higher thermal conductivity; however, in more recent times, the high price of copper often makes this an uneconomic choice and cheaper substitutes (such as steel) are used instead.

For much of the Victorian "age of vapor", the only material used for boilermaking was the highest grade of wrought iron, with assembly by rivetting. This iron was from specialist ironworks, such as at Cleator Moor (UK), mentioned for the high quality of their rolled plate and its suitability for high-reliability use in critical applications, such as high-pressure boilers. In the 20th century, design practice instead shifted towards the use of steel, which is more powerful and cheaper, with welded structure, which is quicker and requires less labour. It should be observed, however, that wrought iron boilers corrode significantly slower than their modern-day metal counterparts, and are less vunerable to localized pitting and stress-corrosion. This makes the durability of older wrought-iron boilers much superior to those of welded steel boilers.

Cast iron might be utilized for the heating system vessel of domestic drinking water heaters. Although such heaters are usually termed "boilers" in a few countries, their purpose is to produce warm water usually, not steam, and they also run at low pressure and try to avoid boiling. The brittleness of cast iron helps it be impractical for high-pressure vapor boilers.
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Energy
The source of heat for a boiler is combustion of some of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or natural gas. Electric vapor boilers use resistance- or immersion-type heating system elements. Nuclear fission can be used as a heat source for producing steam also, either directly (BWR) or, in most cases, in specialised heat exchangers called "vapor generators" (PWR). Heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs) use heat rejected from other processes such as gas turbine.

Boiler efficiency
there are two methods to gauge the boiler efficiency 1) direct method 2) indirect method

Direct method -immediate method of boiler efficiency test is more usable or even more common

boiler efficiency =Q*((Hg-Hf)/q)*(GCV *100 ) Q =Total steam flow Hg= Enthalpy of saturated vapor in k cal/kg Hf =Enthalpy of give food to water in kcal/kg q= quantity of gasoline use in kg/hr GCV =gross calorific value in kcal/kg like pet coke (8200 kcal/KG)

indirect method -to measure the boiler efficiency in indirect method, we need a subsequent parameter like

Ultimate analysis of gasoline (H2,S2,S,C moisture constraint, ash constraint)
percentage of O2 or CO2 at flue gas
flue gas temperature at outlet
ambient temperature in deg c and humidity of air in kg/kg
GCV of gasoline in kcal/kg
ash percentage in combustible fuel
GCV of ash in kcal/kg
Configurations
Boilers can be classified into the following configurations:

Pot boiler or Haycock boiler/Haystack boiler: a primitive "kettle" where a fireplace heats a partially filled water box from below. 18th century Haycock boilers generally produced and stored large quantities of very low-pressure vapor, often barely above that of the atmosphere. These could burn wood or frequently, coal. Efficiency was very low.
Flued boiler with one or two large flues-an early forerunner or kind of fire-tube boiler.

Diagram of the fire-tube boiler
Fire-tube boiler: Here, drinking water partially fills a boiler barrel with a little volume left above to support the vapor (steam space). This is the type of boiler used in nearly all steam locomotives. The heat source is inside a furnace or firebox that has to be held completely surrounded by the water in order to keep the temperature of the heating system surface below the boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of the fire-tube which lengthens the path of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating system surface which can be further increased by causing the gases invert direction through a second parallel tube or a bundle of multiple tubes (two-pass or return flue boiler); additionally the gases may be studied along the edges and then beneath the boiler through flues (3-move boiler). In case of a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel stretches from the firebox and the hot gases pass through a lot of money of fire tubes inside the barrel which greatly escalates the heating surface in comparison to a single tube and further enhances heat transfer. Fire-tube boilers will often have a comparatively low rate of vapor production, but high vapor storage capacity. Fire-tube boilers mainly burn solid fuels, but are readily adaptable to the people of the gas or liquid variety.

Diagram of the water-tube boiler.
Water-tube boiler: In this type, tubes filled up with water are arranged inside a furnace in a number of possible configurations. The water pipes connect large drums Often, the lower ones containing water and the upper ones water and steam; in other instances, such as a mono-tube boiler, drinking water is circulated with a pump through a succession of coils. This type generally provides high steam creation rates, but less storage capacity than the above. Water pipe boilers can be designed to exploit any warmth source and are generally preferred in high-pressure applications since the high-pressure drinking water/steam is included within small diameter pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall structure.
Flash boiler: A flash boiler is a specialized kind of water-tube boiler in which pipes are close together and water is pumped through them. A flash boiler differs from the kind of mono-tube steam generator where the tube is permanently filled with water. Super fast boiler, the pipe is kept so hot that the water feed is quickly flashed into vapor and superheated. Flash boilers had some use in automobiles in the 19th century which use continued in to the early 20th century. .

1950s design steam locomotive boiler, from a Victorian Railways J class
Fire-tube boiler with Water-tube firebox. Sometimes both above types have been mixed in the following manner: the firebox includes an set up of water tubes, called thermic siphons. The gases pass through a typical firetube boiler then. Water-tube fireboxes were installed in many Hungarian locomotives,[citation needed - but have met with little success in other countries.
Sectional boiler. Inside a ensemble iron sectional boiler, sometimes called a "pork chop boiler" the water is contained inside solid iron areas.[citation needed - These sections are assembled on site to make the finished boiler.
Safety
See also: Boiler explosion
To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations such as the American Society of Mechanical Technical engineers (ASME) develop requirements and regulation codes. For instance, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a typical providing a wide range of rules and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with security, security and design standards.[5 -

Historically, boilers were a source of many serious injuries and property destruction due to poorly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle metal shells can rupture, while badly welded or riveted seams could open up, leading to a violent eruption of the pressurized vapor. When water is converted to steam it expands to over 1,000 times its original quantity and travels down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres each hour. As a result of this, steam is a great way of moving energy and warmth around a niche site from a central boiler house to where it is necessary, but with no right boiler give food to water treatment, a steam-raising plant will suffer from level corrosion and formation. At best, this boosts energy costs and can result in poor quality vapor, reduced efficiency, shorter plant life and unreliable procedure. At worst, it can result in catastrophic loss and failure of life. Collapsed or dislodged boiler pipes can also squirt scalding-hot vapor and smoke out of the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who weight the coal into the open fire chamber. Extremely large boilers providing hundreds of horsepower to use factories can potentially demolish entire buildings.[6 -

A boiler which has a loss of give food to drinking water and is permitted to boil dry can be extremely dangerous. If nourish water is then sent into the empty boiler, the tiny cascade of incoming water instantly boils on contact with the superheated metal shell and leads to a violent explosion that cannot be controlled even by basic safety vapor valves. Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the vapor source lines that is bigger than the make-up water source could replace. The Hartford Loop was invented in 1919 by the Hartford Steam Boiler and Insurance Company as a method to assist in preventing this problem from occurring, and thus reduce their insurance claims.[7 - [8 -

Superheated steam boiler

A superheated boiler on a steam locomotive.
Main article: Superheater
Most boilers produce vapor to be used at saturation heat; that is, saturated steam. Superheated steam boilers vaporize the water and then further temperature the steam in a superheater. This provides vapor at higher temp, but can reduce the overall thermal efficiency of the vapor generating herb because the higher steam temp requires a higher flue gas exhaust temperature.[citation needed - There are many ways to circumvent this problem, by providing an economizer that heats the feed drinking water typically, a combustion air heater in the hot flue gas exhaust route, or both. You will find benefits to superheated vapor that may, and often will, increase overall efficiency of both vapor generation and its utilization: gains in input temp to a turbine should outweigh any cost in additional boiler problem and expense. There could be useful restrictions in using wet vapor also, as entrained condensation droplets will damage turbine blades.

Superheated steam presents unique safety concerns because, if any operational system component fails and allows steam to flee, the high temperature and pressure can cause serious, instantaneous harm to anyone in its path. Since the escaping steam will initially be completely superheated vapor, detection can be difficult, although the intense heat and sound from such a leak indicates its existence clearly.

Superheater operation is similar to that of the coils on an fresh air conditioning unit, although for a different purpose. The steam piping is directed through the flue gas route in the boiler furnace. The heat range in this field is normally between 1,300 and 1,600 °C (2,372 and 2,912 °F). Some superheaters are glowing type; that is, they absorb temperature by rays. Others are convection type, absorbing warmth from a liquid. Some are a combination of both types. Through either method, the extreme heat in the flue gas path will heat the superheater steam piping and the steam within also. While the temperatures of the vapor in the superheater rises, the pressure of the vapor will not and the pressure remains exactly like that of the boiler.[9 - Virtually all steam superheater system designs remove droplets entrained in the steam to prevent harm to the turbine blading and associated piping.

Supercritical steam generator

Boiler for a power place.
Main article: Supercritical steam generator
Supercritical steam generators are used for the production of electric power frequently. They operate at supercritical pressure. In contrast to a "subcritical boiler", a supercritical vapor generator operates at such a high pressure (over 3,200 psi or 22 MPa) that the physical turbulence that characterizes boiling ceases that occurs; the fluid is neither water nor gas but a super-critical fluid. There is absolutely no generation of vapor bubbles within water, because the pressure is above the critical pressure point of which vapor bubbles can develop. As the liquid expands through the turbine levels, its thermodynamic condition drops below the critical point as it can work turning the turbine which changes the electrical generator from which power is eventually extracted. The fluid at that time may be a mix of steam and liquid droplets as it passes in to the condenser. This leads to slightly less gas use and therefore less greenhouse gas production. The term "boiler" should not be used for a supercritical pressure vapor generator, as no "boiling" occurs in this product.
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Accessories
Boiler accessories and fittings
Pressuretrols to control the vapor pressure in the boiler. Boilers generally have two or three 3 pressuretrols: a manual-reset pressuretrol, which functions as a basic safety by setting the upper limit of steam pressure, the operating pressuretrol, which handles when the boiler fires to maintain pressure, and for boilers equipped with a modulating burner, a modulating pressuretrol which settings the amount of fire.
Safety valve: It is utilized to alleviate pressure and prevent possible explosion of a boiler.
Water level indications: They show the operator the level of liquid in the boiler, known as a view cup also, water measure or water column.
Bottom blowdown valves: They offer a means for removing solid particulates that condense and rest on the bottom of the boiler. As the name indicates, this valve is usually located directly on underneath of the boiler, and is sometimes opened up to use the pressure in the boiler to push these particulates out.
Continuous blowdown valve: This allows a small quantity of water to flee continuously. Its purpose is to avoid water in the boiler becoming saturated with dissolved salts. Saturation would lead to foaming and cause water droplets to be transported over with the vapor - an ailment known as priming. Blowdown is often used to monitor the chemistry of the boiler water also.
Trycock: a kind of valve that is often use to manually check a water level in a container. Most found on a water boiler commonly.
Flash container: High-pressure blowdown enters this vessel where in fact the vapor can 'flash' safely and be used in a low-pressure system or be vented to atmosphere while the ambient pressure blowdown flows to drain.
Automatic blowdown/constant heat recovery system: This system allows the boiler to blowdown only when makeup water is flowing to the boiler, thereby transferring the maximum amount of heat possible from the blowdown to the makeup water. No flash tank is generally needed as the blowdown discharged is near to the heat range of the make-up water.
Hand holes: They are steel plates installed in openings in "header" to permit for inspections & installing tubes and inspection of internal surfaces.
Vapor drum internals, a series of display, scrubber & cans (cyclone separators).
Low-water cutoff: It really is a mechanical means (usually a float switch) that is utilized to turn off the burner or shut down energy to the boiler to avoid it from running once the drinking water goes below a certain point. If a boiler is "dry-fired" (burnt without drinking water in it) it can cause rupture or catastrophic failure.
Surface blowdown line: It offers a way for removing foam or other lightweight non-condensible substances that tend to float together with water inside the boiler.
Circulating pump: It is made to circulate water back to the boiler after it has expelled a few of its heat.
Feedwater check valve or clack valve: A non-return stop valve in the feedwater range. This can be installed to the medial side of the boiler, just below water level, or to the top of the boiler.[10 -
Top give food to: Within this design for feedwater injection, water is fed to the top of the boiler. This can reduce boiler fatigue triggered by thermal stress. By spraying the feedwater over some trays water is quickly warmed and this can reduce limescale.
Desuperheater pipes or bundles: A series of tubes or bundles of pipes in water drum or the steam drum made to cool superheated steam, in order to provide auxiliary equipment that will not need, or may be damaged by, dry out vapor.
Chemical substance injection line: A link with add chemicals for controlling feedwater pH.
Steam accessories
Main vapor stop valve:
Steam traps:
Main vapor stop/check valve: It is used on multiple boiler installations.
Combustion accessories
Fuel oil system:fuel oil heaters
Gas system:
Coal system:
Soot blower
Other essential items
Pressure gauges:
Feed pumps:
Fusible plug:
Inspectors test pressure measure attachment:
Name dish:
Registration plate: